The process of reforming the United Nations (UN) has been a highly debatable issue among the international community. Since the initial signing of the UN Charter in 1945, the world has changed dramatically as the UN is trying to regulate a forum that assesses and deals with global issues while also struggling to unite all 193 member states of the UN when some states have been seen to have conflicting ideas and personal agendas (Teng, 2003, pp. 2-3). This essay is targeted to highlight what I feel are the most pressing arguments for UN reform amongst the international community. This will be done by highlighting the problems and ongoing issues surrounding the lack of representation and P5 power of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC), arguing that the UNSC is out of date and controlled egotistically. This essay will also highlight the humanitarian aspect of the UN and the role it plays in meeting and solving complex global problems. This will be done by showing reform propositions in the aforementioned councils in the UN in hopes of showing how reform will be achieved.
Although the UNSC was created in 1945, there has only been one noteworthy reform in its entire 69 year establishment. This was done in 1965 as a means to expand the Security Council from 11 to 15 members as well as the required majority from seven to nine. However, this was mainly due only to the rapid addition of around 53 member-states to the UN by 1963 (Diehl, 2005, p. 450). This is interesting as there are currently 193 member states apart of the UN but there has not been a significant Security Council reform in 53 years. This is interesting since the UN charter states that the UN is based on sovereign equality for all and the Security Council main goal is to maintain international peace and security (United Nations, 1945, p. 3). This highlights the issue that there is a lack of regional representation in the Security Council, as there seems to be no voice for underdeveloped states in the UNSC.
Of the 15 member states, five of these nations (i.e. China, France, Russia, United Kingdom and the United States) make up the permanent members (P5) and are thus not rotated out of the Security Council as well as also having the power of the veto (Teng, 2003, p. 4). The other members are elected by the General Assembly and selected based on their geographical location and are on rotating process after every second year that they are included. Of these ten members, three are chosen from Africa while two are chosen from Asia, Latin America and Western Europe and one is chosen from Eastern Europe (Teng, 2003, p. 4).
There seems to be widespread agreement even amongst the P5 states that the membership should be expanded, but there are disagreements on the number of seats, which geographical regions should be represented and if they should be permanent members or not. It has been pointed out that states that are more interested in results rather than in the process have highlighted that...