Automatic Optic Disc Detection In Digital Fundus Images Using Image Processing Techniques

1990 words - 8 pages

Optic disc (OD) is an important part of the eye. In developing systems automatic OD detection is an important step for automated diagnosis of various serious ophthalmic diseases such as Diabetic retinopathy, Glaucoma, hypertension, etc. The variation of intensity within the optic disc and intensities close to the optic disc boundary are the major hurdle in automated optic disc detection. General edge detection algorithms are frequently unsuccessful to segments the optic disc because of this. Complexity increases due the presence of blood vessels. This paper presents a simple method for OD segmentation by using techniques such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Mathematical Morphology and Circular Hough Transform. PCA used for good presentation of the input image and mathematical morphology is used to remove blood vessels from image. Circular Hough Transform is used for boundary segmentation.
Keywords—Diabetic retinopathy; glaucoma; optic disc; principal component analysis.
I. INTRODUCTION
T
he OD is an important part of the human eye. Human eye receives a light and is carried through the optic nerve to the brain. The optic disc is the point from where the optic nerve exits the eye, the anatomy of the human eye is shown in the Fig.1. To respond a light there is no presence of the light sensitive rods at this point so, there is a break in the field of vision. The entry point of the blood vessels that supplies the retina is at the OD. The optic nerve head in a normal human eye carries millions of neurons from the eye towards the brain. The position of the OD is 3 to 4mm to the nasal side of the fovea. It is a slightly oval shape, with average dimensions of 1.82mm horizontally by 1.92mm vertically.
The OD is considered as one of the main feature which usually appears as a round region brighter than surrounding in fundus image Fig.2.
Visual impairment is a major health problem. The change in the shape or size of OD is an indicator of various ophthalmic pathologies. Diabetic retinopathy, hypertension, glaucoma, and macular degeneration are nowadays some of the most common causes of visual impairment and blindness. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of these diseases can prevent visual loss. Usually, global visual impairment is 80% avoidable by early stage diagnosis [1]. Population growth, aging and obesity are contributing factors to increase

Fig. 1. Anatomy of the human eye.

Fig. 2. Digital fundus image of the human eye.
these diseases.
Image of the interior surface of the eye is taken with the help of a fundus camera which consists of a microscope and camera. Fundus images are used for diagnosis of diseases.
Automated system with fundus image analysis helps to ophthalmologists by providing a second opinion. Concerning this aspect, optic disc (OD) segmentation is a key process in many algorithms designed for the automatic extraction of anatomical ocular structures, the detection of retinal lesions and identification of the...

Find Another Essay On Automatic Optic Disc Detection in Digital Fundus Images Using Image Processing Techniques

DIGITAL IMPLANT SCALING TECHNIQUE IN MEDICAL IMAGES USING PIXEL DENSITY ALGORYTHM

1884 words - 8 pages ). Disadvantage of compression is that it can affect image quality. The usage of X-ray images in JPEG format has resulted in decreasing of image quality and causing the digital implants scaling to be less accurate. This problem can be solved with the use of medical images in DICOM format (*.DCM) and the appropriate scaling techniques. 3.0 OBJECTIVES The main objective of the research is to produce algorithms and techniques that can solve the problem

A REVIEW on VARIOUS DIGITAL IMAGE ENCRYPTION TECHNIQUES

1487 words - 6 pages The Internet and the information technology are evolving rapidly. Consequently, people are using interactive media extensively in communication. The images occupy a vast portion of multimedia and play a significant role in communication, e.g., military, national security agencies, diplomatic affairs and social. Since, an image may contain highly confidential information and when people want to transfer an image over insecure a network

A Review on Vrious Digital Image Ecryption Techniques

2431 words - 10 pages Processing (IJIP), Volume (6), Issue (1), 25 Feb 2012. [12] Pia Singh, Karamjeet Singh, “Image Encryption and Decryption Using Blowfish Algorithm in MATLAB”, International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 4, Issue 7, July-2013. [13] Riah Ukur Ginting, Rocky Yefrences Dillak, “Digital Color Image Encryption Using RC4 Stream Cipher and Chaotic Logistic Map”, Information Technology and Electrical Engineering (ICITEE), 2013

Effective Intrusion Detection System (IDS) with GA based Feature Selection using Data Mining Classification techniques

1096 words - 5 pages techniques of dimensionality reduction in which only limited features are selected using algorithmic approach ignoring irrelevant features. Machine Learning is the study of algorithms which improve themselves by learning from existing data. They help in deriving useful knowledge from large amount of data. Arthur Samuel defines it as "Field of study that gives computers the ability to learn without being detailed programming". GA, one of the machine

Image Processing in Iris Biometric Authentication System

1123 words - 5 pages biometric technologies, used for authentication. Definitely the iris is only visible human organ it won’t be change during a life cycle. In terms of recognizing a person, there are several algorithms using digital image processing of the iris have been proposed. More precisely after acquisition phase, a specific signature is encoded for biometric pattern that can be used for authentication and identification purposes. The Figure - 2 shows the

Facial Features Detection in Colour Images Based on Skin Colour Segmentation

924 words - 4 pages challenging problems in disciplines such as image processing, pattern recognize and computer vision. Because of various pose, facial expression, orientation, light condition, color of images. With the improvement of information technology facial features identification has wide usage in the application, such as personal identification, video surveillance, AVSR (audio visual speech recognize), witness face reconstruction, face animation, face

Digital Image Alteration and Photojournalist Ethics in China and USA

3171 words - 13 pages the phrase "the camera does not lie." Thus, photographs are used heavily in news reporting as a proof that a certain event has occurred. Recently, news agencies have begin to digitize their photographic process. Using digital photography allows journalists to send their pictures to the editor with faster speed and better reliability than using film. However, digital images are easily modifiable. People or objects may be added, rearranged, reversed

Using Advertising Techniques in Health Education: Changing Experience of Kazakhstan

3051 words - 12 pages due to appearance of “defensive responses” of surveyed students. Therefore, highly stressful advertisements are relatively ineffective in discouraging drinkers to quit. Researchers also suggest that such stressful techniques might be successfully used in anti-alcohol campaigns in some certain cases, and using uncomplicated and reachable recommendations on how to change habits and behaviour are considered to be more effective (Brown and Locker

Body Image Concerns in Adolescents: The Impact and Influence of Social Media on Students’ Body Images and Its Remedies

1661 words - 7 pages Body Image Concerns in Adolescents: The Impact and Influence of Social Media on Students’ Body Images and Its Remedies As the mass media and the social media have become the essential tools to become socialized with people, body image concerns in adolescents have become critical problems regarding eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, or body dissatisfaction. The mass media and the social media provide a gateway for

Images of women in advertising; its impact on social perceptions of beauty and body image idealisms, and the extents to which we go to become them

2482 words - 10 pages education, creating a 160 billion dollar a year global industry, all in the name of ‘perfection.’ 5 Intensification of body image ideals has increased through media and manipulation in the advertising industry, due to the portrayal of women, leading to the creation of a 20 billion dollar cosmetic surgery industry. Driven and fueled by sexual instinct and desire to achieve perfection, images of women in advertising will not cease to hold a huge

Cognitive processing is the act of acquiring new information, storing the information in our memory, and using the knowledge that is attained

1329 words - 5 pages The Brain and Phineas Gage University of Phoenix Cognitive processing is the act of acquiring new information, storing the information in our memory, and using the knowledge that is attained. This mental process is associated with our vision, attention, memory, and the unconscious processes that lead to conscious perception. The brain plays a vital role in cognitive functioning. To gain full comprehension of cognitive mental processing, it is

Similar Essays

Various Digital Image Encryption Techniques Essay

2661 words - 11 pages ]. Consequently, the results validate that system generate a robust cipher image with the help of explosive displacement of RGB values. [5].A Novel Neural Network Approach for Digital Data Encryption/Decryption (2012) In this paper Saraswati D. Joshi, Dr. V.R. Udupi and Dr. D.R. Joshi have recommended a technique, which scans image pixel by pixel. Afterward, it performs the transformation on these pixels using substitution and permutation. Furthermore, the

Automatic Surveillance: Vision Detection Using Gaussian Processes Analysis

679 words - 3 pages Automatic surveillance application has been a subject of extensive research during last decades to develop robust application. As one of its important application, the vision detection and localization interest in detecting moving objects under the challenging conditions of the illumination change, occlusion, shadow and perturbation of the images sources. In vision detection system, the techniques used are either background subtraction based or

Fpga Implementation Of Image Processing Architecture For Target Detection

1047 words - 5 pages involved in the target detection process are shown in Fig. 4. Here, the input images of size 128 x 128 or 256 x 256 are considered. Then the original image is subjected to quantization in order meet the memory requirements of Virtex 5 genesys board. So the pixel values are reduced from 256 to 16 or 32 gray level values. The target detection is carried out by considering nonoverlapping sub-images (i.e., blocks) of sizes 16 x 16. Each distinct sub

Multi Scale Matching For The Automatic Location Of Control Points In Large Scale Aerial Images Using Terrestrial Scenes

2263 words - 10 pages (1996), Heipke (1997), Habib and Morgan (2003), Schenk (2004), Fraser et al. (2001), Marcato Junior and Tommaselli (2013), among others. The technique presented in this paper uses vertical terrestrial images of GPCs to be matched with aerial images improving the integrated image orientation process. Using image matching techniques, image coordinates of GCPs are automatically determined with sub-pixel precision. Experiments were performed with
Education in Society - 1048 Words | vikings s05e11 720p web h264-convoy[eztv] | 30.11.1805:28 Uhr FIGHTING EX LAYER*inklusive deutschem Untertitel* Action0 / 0263 Hits VID P2P DDL 0 Kommentare