Penang was a part of territory of Kedah was considered strategically located to serve as navy base
A British base in Malay archipelago which would secure their trade with China
The British were attracted by the economic resources such ass tin ore, rubber, spices and agricultural products
Competition among western powers for colonies to meet the economic needs of their country.
They wanted to rise as a world power and wanted to expand their control over Asia by 1938.
In 1936 Germany (Hitler), Italy (Mussolini) and Japan (General Tojo) formed a pact known as Axial powers and according to this pact, Italy and Germany would conquer Europe and Africa while Japan would conquer Asia.
They wanted to drive out western forces out of Asia like Britain and America as they interfered with their conquest of Asia particularly in China, by providing the Chinese with arms and raw materials.
It would be a great prestige for Japan to defeat a great military power like Britain.
They wanted to end the aids that were given by the Chinese in Malaya for China's war effort against Japan, which included collecting funds and boycotting Japanese goods.
They wanted to control the rich resources of Asia for its industries, production of war materials and provide land for its growing population. Malaya was rich in rubber and tin.
Japan did not have much raw materials of its own and Britain and America had placed embargos on them.
REASONS THAT LEAD TO COLONISATION
The civil war caused by constant disputes over succession among the leaders of the state, which made local governments unstable.
The birth of secret societies that caused frequent fights among them, which stymied growth and economic development of the tin mines.
The colonies of Penang and became the key points of the British colony
Sultan Muhammad Jiwa of Kedah was willing to surrender Penang to the British in exchange for their protection.
British colonization of Penang was achieved through deception perpetrated by Francis Light
the East India Company assigned Captain Francis Light to negotiate with the sultan behalf of the British. The result was a treaty signed between Francis Light and Sultan Muhammad Jiwa in April 1771.
The British refused to provide aid to Kedah in an attack on the Bugis in Selangor.
Dutch agreed to let British to take over its colonies following its to France in 1795
1815: Napoleon war was ended Malacca was handed back to Dutch
This arrangement remain until the Dutch -British agreement was signed in 1824
Malacca was surrendered to British
The British and Dutch signed the London Treaty on 17th March 1824 to solve the conflicts between themselves in the East and to protect their own interests. It was agreed upon in the treaty that Singapore, the Malay states and India would come under British rule, while East India and the regions south of Singapore belonged to the Dutch. ...