Stress is a component that everyone experiences at some point in life. Everyone expresses and handles stress differently, but when stress is accompanied by other issues, such as depression it can become very exhausting on an individual. In the article, A Longitudinal Examination of Stress Generation in Depression and Anxiety Disorders by Uliaszek et al. (2012) examines two opposing theories of the stress generation model of depression. As stated by Hammen, the stress generation model of depression states that depression is a prediction of future stress (Uliaszek, 2012). The two theories include, stress causation versus stress continuation to measure episodic life stress, known as limited time periods and chronic life stress, known to be ongoing time periods. Stress causation theory states that the symptoms of the depressed person are thought to generate stress over time. In contrast, stress continuation theory states that the relationship between depression and stress is continued by stress over time.
Uliaszek et al. (2012) points out that stress can be described by two additional dimensions. These dimensions include, independent stress refers to anything that is beyond the individual’s control, while dependent stress occurs as a result of the individuals own actions. On the other spectrum, interpersonal stress refers to problems with family, friends, etc, while, noninterpersonal stress is defined as occupational, schooling and health problems. Uliaszek et al. (2012) does not side with one theory over the other for their current study. They simply note that regardless of which theory is supported, the outcome is more than likely the same for these individuals; “those with a history of depression are more prone to be stressed,” resulting in a vicious cycle, because this stress can lead to future depression.
Previous studies have concluded that specific personality characteristics have shown to account for the relationship between stress and depression. These characteristics include neuroticism and lower extraversion (Uliaszek et al., 2010; 2012). These characteristics appear to influence stress and depression because neuroticism is characterized by a personality type that results in an individual being moody, worried and having anxiety, while a person who is low in extraversion is more withdrawn from daily activities.
The current study used previous data from the Youth Emotion Project— a large multiyear, two-site prospective study that was examining the risk factors for psychopathology in late adolescence subjects (Uliaszek et al., 2012). The two sets of data that were selected was approximately one year apart. The purpose of the current study was to expand on previous research and examine interpersonal, noninterpersonal, and dependent stress on these subjects. Independent stress was just examined because the researchers did not believe that a person’s actions could cause these events. Uliaszek et al. (2012) hypothesized that...