In business it is essential for owners to consider important factors when mapping out their business objectives. Economics used as a tool to solve coordination problems. They include what and how much product to produce, how to produce their product, and for whom they are producing. In order to effectively answer these questions, economics is used. Colander (2006) describes economics as “the study of how human beings coordinate their wants and desires, given the decision-making mechanisms, social customs, and political realities of the society” (p. 4). The foundation of economics is based on several factors that assist in understanding an economy.
These factors include economic reasoning, economic insights, economic institutions, and economic policy options. Economic reasoning is a way of thinking that weighs an option based on costs and benefits. Terms such as marginal costs, marginal benefits, and opportunity cost explain economic reasoning in more detail. Marginal costs and benefits are the additional cost and benefit to you respectively over and above those that you have already obtained. Opportunity cost is the cost forfeited by not selecting an option in favor of another. Insights in economics are the theories that have been discovered by economists that are useful in understanding trends. One of the most noted is the invisible hand theory. Economic institutions include but are not limited to laws, common practices, and organizations in a society, are the basis for understanding whether economic theory can be applied to reality (Colander, 2006, p. 14). It is very common for economic institutions to vary by country. Finally, the action or inaction taken by the government to influence economic actions are called economic policy options. These options are considered on a large scale because they have an effect on the entire economy as a whole.
Understanding the fundamental concepts of economics allows us to analyze laws that have a direct bearing on the economy. These laws and theories are essentially the backbone of how economics is used and studied. The law of demand can be expressed by stating that as long as all other factors remain constant, as prices rise, the quantity of demand for that product falls. Conversely, as the price falls, the quantity of demand for that product rises (Colander, 2006, p 91). Price is the tool used that controls how much consumers want based on how much they demand. At any given price a certain quantity of a product is demanded by consumers. As the price decreases, the quantity of the products demanded will increase. This indicates that more individuals demand the good or service as the price is lowered. This can be illustrated using the demand curve. The demand curve is a downward sloping line that illustrates the inversely related relationship of price and quantity demanded.
In addition to the law of demand, the law of supply also serves as the second major resource in studying economics. The law of...