Energia Nuclear Vs Energias Renovables Essay

973 words - 4 pages

Japón es el único país que ha sufrido la explosión de las dos bombas nucleares. A pesar de ello, y con el precedente de Chernóbil, su apuesta por la energía nuclear se ha mantenido. De hecho, en el año 2008, la Agencia de la Energía Atómica de Japón anunció una reducción del 54% de emisiones de CO2 para 2050 . Por ello, la energía nuclear supondría el 60% de la energía total del país, mientras que en la actualidad esa cifra se encuentra en torno al 10%. Por otro lado, las energías renovables aumentarían hasta proveer el 10% de la energía, el doble que hoy en día. Todo esto significaría una reducción del 55% en el uso de los combustibles fósiles (petróleo, gas natural, etc.) que ronda en torno al 85% actualmente .
Sin embargo, el terrible accidente que tuvo lugar en la central nuclear de Fukushima el 11 de marzo de 2011 ha provocado un cambio en la política energética del país oriental. El país se encuentra dividido entre aquellos que piden el cierre de todas las plantas contra aquellos que priman la no dependencia energética.
El programa nuclear comenzó en Japón en 1954, con un primer reactor funcionando en 1966 y aumentando tres más en los siguientes 4 años. Durante la década de los 70, aumentó tanto la construcción como la investigación hasta el punto de ser un país exportador de energía nuclear y diseñar reactores que son muy usados en Europa. Durante las décadas siguientes continuó la investigación para lograr que aumentara el rendimiento de los reactores ya que por razones de mantenimiento y seguridad debían estar parados durante largos períodos.
Por otro lado, la industria nuclear japonesa no se vio afectada por los efectos de los accidentes nucleares de Three Miles Island (EEUU) ni Chernóbil (Ucrania) aunque varios accidentes acontecidos en el propio país nipón comenzaron a afectar a la opinión pública. Las consecuencias fueron paralizaciones de la actividad así como cancelaciones de proyectos pero no acabaron con la industria nuclear sino que esta fue en aumento. También pusieron de manifiesto la necesidad de mayores medidas de seguridad.
En la primera década de los años 2000, la política nipona se encaminó a continuar con la energía nuclear como elemento principal de la producción energética, el reciclaje de uranio y plutonio, el desarrollo de reactores que aumenten el aprovechamiento del uso del uranio y por último, promocionar la energía nuclear entre la opinión pública haciendo hincapié en su seguridad . Asimismo, el gobierno anunció que la política de reducción de emisiones de gas ratificada en los Protocolos de Kyoto se centraría en aumentar la producción nuclear llegando a tener 54 reactores operativos. A su vez se promulgó una ley para aumentar las medidas de seguridad, para establecer las bases del abastecimiento energético facilitando la eficiencia y reduciendo la dependencia de otros países.
En el año 2010, la energía nuclear suponía el 25% de...

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