According to Badewi (2013), there are two approaches for conducting a research, the first is filling knowledge gap, and the second is to solve a problem, which is usually conducted by using applied science. Researchers who highly depend on problem solving approaches are mainly considered as interpreters. For filling knowledge gap model, scholars and academics use theoretical perspectives from previous researches and studies in order to find knowledge gap that will allow them to develop a new research area, they are mostly known as positivists. According to the author, the most logical way is to use a combination between the two approaches since solving a problem without referring to literature review could not be beneficial since the author could look into the same areas discovered previously, and trying to filling gap based on theoretical perspectives without referring to analyses and solving would not form a constructive research. The example given by Easterby-Smith (2012, p. 38) about Sherlock Holmes and Miss Marple explains exactly the difference between the positivist and the constructionist side. Where Holmes uses logical deduction based on physical evidence, however Miss Marple makes use of the intuitive feel about the characters involved.
It seems that filling the knowledge gap approach rely on analyzing objective quantitative data to validate one or more hypotheses. In this type, scholars try to find a reality, however in the problem solving approach, there is no single reality, and it is based on qualitative and descriptive analysis. One of the most advanced research paradigm used today in conducting research starts with Ontology, epistemology, Methodology, methods and technics and structure (Easterby-Smith, 2012, p. 18). The research paradigm follows the literature review, and evaluates it by using its advanced philosophy.
Ontology is the belief about the reality. Is there a single reality or no? When we have different realities based on the context we are working on, it means we have to construct a reality, and here comes the role of a constructionist researcher. After the Ontology, we should think about Epistemology which is the theory of getting the knowledge. There are different views of epistemology. For example, if we do not have a single reality then we should interpret the reality; in this regard the epistemology is interpreted.
What is Epistemology, and how is it related to knowledge?
According to Rayner (2011, p. 258), epistemological structures reflects academic values, beliefs and idea of knowledge. They are used by researchers to interpret and re-interpret domain discipline. Knowledge acquisition can be sourced through perception, introspection, reason,...