Esophogeal Cancer Essay

1113 words - 5 pages

The scientific definition for cancer is a disorder in which body cells lose the ability to control growth. Cancer cells don’t respond to the signals that regulate the growth of most cells, which means they divide uncontrollably. Cancer cells are different than healthy cells because they don’t die but continue to divide. The infected cells absorb the nutrients other cells need, block nerve connections, and prevent the organs they invade from doing their job.
Cancer is caused by a defect in genes that control cell growth and division. Things like smoking, chewing tobacco, and radiation exposure can cause these defects. Most cancer cells have a defect in the gene called p53. The gene p53 stops the cell cycle until all the chromosomes have been duplicated right, but when it is defective or damaged it makes cells lose their information needed to respond to signals that normally control growth.
The cancer I chose is Esophageal Cancer. It is a cancer that forms in the tissues along the esophagus. There are two types of esophageal cancer; one is called squamous cell carcinoma, which is cancer that starts in flat cells along the esophagus. The other is called adenocarcinoma, which is a cancer that starts in cells that make mucus and other fluids. I chose it because my grandpa Gyhra had it and that is what he died of. I never got to meet him...
There are four different stages of esophageal cancer with many sub-stages. The stages of esophageal cancer are based on how deep the tumor has gone into the wall of the esophagus, where it’s located, and if the cells have spread to lymph nodes or other parts of the body. There are different stages for the different forms of Esophageal Cancer. At stage IA of Adenocarcinoma the cancer has gone through the inner layer and into the wall of the esophagus. At stage IB the cancer has gone into the wall of the esophagus or has gone farther into the muscle layer. In stage IIA the cancer has gone into the muscle layer of the esophagus. In stage IIB the cancer has gone into the outer layer of the esophagus or it hasn’t gotten into the outer layer, but the cells are found in lymph nodes. In stage IA of Squamous The cancer grows through the inner layer and has gone into the wall of the esophagus. In stage IB the cancer has gone farther into the wall of the esophagus or the cancer in seen in the lower part of the esophagus and has gone into the muscle layer. At stage IIA the cancer is in the upper or middle part of the esophagus or in the lower part but more severe. At stage IIB the cancer in the upper or middle part is more severe, or the cancer hasn’t gone into the muscle layer, but is found in lymph nodes. Stages three and four are the same for both forms of Esophageal Cancer. In stage IIIA the cancer hasn’t invaded the muscle layer, but in found in three to six lymph nodes or it has invaded the muscle layer and has spread to one or two lymph nodes, or it goes through the esophageal wall and has spread to other tissues like...

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