EXPLAIN HOW THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION, IMPERIALISM AND THE
MOVEMENT OF PEOPLE (FROM 1750 ONWARDS) CONTRIBUTED TO THE
ESTABLISHMENT OF AUSTRALIA IN 1901.
The Industrial Revolution, imperialism, and the movement of people around the globe contributed
significantly to the establishment of Australia in 1901. The Industrial Revolution caused overcrowding in
Britain, so the colonisation of Australia by the British served as a perfect place to send the rapidly growing
number of British convicts. The terrible living and working conditions that the Industrial Revolution provided
in Britain, and the famine in Ireland and Scotland caused many people to immigrate to Australia. The
Australian gold rushes also attracted hundreds of thousands of people from many different countries to
Australia in the hope of making their fortune. These three aspects intertwine, as imperialism and the
movement of people have factors that resulted from the Industrial Revolution as well as each other, and
each have played a major role in shaping the face of Australia in 1901, and how we know it today.
The Industrial Revolution started in the early eighteenth century in Europe, when basic machines were
invented to replace hand tools. The machines did the work of the people at a cheaper cost and much more
quickly, making them more efficient, and therefore increasing production significantly. This growing
workforce lead to urbanisation and consequently, overcrowding in the rapidly growing cities.
Britain's desire to further expand their empire in order to limit the extent at which its rivals, France and
Russia, could build empires of the same size, resulted in the east coast of Australia being claimed by Britain
in 1770. Britain believed that a larger empire meant more goods to sell, and more markets to sell them to.
This would result in more money for the British Empire, consequently making them more powerful. The
British used their armed forces to gain control and have power over other countries, causing the Empire to
boom during the Industrial Revolution.
The Industrial Revolution in Britain provided extremely poor working conditions, living conditions and
sanitation, and left thousands of people unemployed. This caused increased rates of crime (mostly theft of
food to keep people's families from starving), resulting in too many prisoners to fit in the goals. Britain
needed to make more room...