Helminth Parasitic Worms Essay

1142 words - 5 pages

INTRODUCTION
THE WORD HELMINTH HAS ITS ORIGIN FROM GREEK MEANING WORMS. HELMINTHS ARE PARASITIC WORMS THAT HAVE BEEN WITH MANKIND SINCE TIME IN MEMORIAL. THE DISEASE BURDEN OF HELMINTH INFECTION ESPECIALLY TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES FAR OUT WEIGHTS COMMONLY KNOWN INFECTION SUCH AS TUBERCULOSIS. EGGS OF INTESTINAL WORMS CAN BE SEEN IN FEACES OF MUMMIFIED BODIES WHO DIED THOUSANDS OF YEARS AGO.
DISCUSSION
GLOBALLY ASCARIASIS (ROUNDWORM) INFECTION IS THE MOST PREVALENT ABOUT 807 MILLION AND COMMONEST IN ASIA, SUBSAHARAN AFRICA AND SOUTH AMERICA. THIS IS FOLLOWED BY TRICHURIASIS (WHIPWORM) AT 604 MILLION AND THEN THE NECATOR AMERICANUS (HOOKWORM) AT 576 MILLION. THE ABOVE INFESTATIONS ARE COMMONEST IN AFRICA, ASIA AND SOUTH AMERICA.
FILARIAL NEMATODES (WUCHERERIABANCROFTR, BRUGIA MALAYI) ARE ALSO A COMMON PREVALENCE IN INDIA AND PARTS OF SUB SAHARAN AFRICA INFECTING ABOUT 120 MILLION PEOPLE. OTHER RELEVANT HELMINTH INFECTIONS INCLUDES SCHISTOSOMIASIS (SCHISTOSOMA HEMATOBIUM, SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI AND SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM) COMBINELY INFECTING ABOUT 207 MILLION PEOPLE MAINLY IN SUBSAHARAN AFRICA, EASTERN BRAZIL, CHINA AND SOUTH EAST ASIA.
FOOD BORNE TREMATODIASIS SUCH AS CLONORCHIS SINENSIS, OPISTHORCHIS VIVERINNI (LIVER FLUKE), PARAGONIMUS (LUNG FLUKE) AND INTESTINAL FLUKE SUCH AS FASCIOLOPSIS BUSKI AND FASCIOLA HEPATICA COMBINELY CAUSE ABOUT 40 MILLION INFECTIONS MOSTLY IN DEVELOPING PARTS OF ASIA. TINEA SOLIUM WHICH IS A PORK TAPEWORM CAUSES 400000 INFECTIONS IN AFRICA ASIA AND SOUTH AMERICA.
ACCORDING TO W.H.O FACT SHEET No 336 UPDATED IN JUNE 2013, THERE IS ABOUT TWO BILLION HELMINTH INFECTED INDIVIDUALS WORLDWIDE EQUIVALENT TO 24% OF THE WORLD POPULATION. OF THIS GROUP, 270 MILLION ARE PRESCHOOL CHILDREN WHILE 600 MILLION ARE SCHOOL AGE PREDOMINANTLY FOUND IN AFRICA, SOUTH EAST ASIA, CHINA AND THE AMERICAS.

TRANSMISSION
ADULT WORMS USUALLY RESIDE IN THE HOST INTESTINE AND DISCHARGING THOUSANDS OF THEIR EGGS IN THE HOST FEACES WHICH IN AREAS OF POOR SANITATION CAUSES ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION. THESE EGGS MAY ATTACH TO VEGETABLES AND IF NOT PROPERLY WASHED, COOKED OR PEELED OFF, WILL INFECT CONSUMERS. EGGS MAY ALSO BE INGESTED FROM CONTAMINATED WATER OR WHEN CHILDREN PLAY ON CONTAMINATED SOIL. HOOKWORM CAN INFECT INDIVIDUALS WALKING BAREFOOT ON CONTAMINATED SOIL. EGGS TAKE ABOUT 3 WEEKS TO MATURE IN THE SOIL AND WORMS DO NOT MULTIPLY IN HUMAN HOST NOR DO THEY HAVE DIRECT PERSON TO PERSON TRANSMISSION.
PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATION OF HELMINTHIASIS
OUT OF THE 807 MILLION ROUND WORM INFECTIONS WORLDWIDE, ABOUT 60,000 DIE ANNUALY AND THE ROUND WORM CAN GROW AS LONG AS 12 INCHES AND AS BIG AS A PENCIL. THIS SIZE WORM CAN EASILY CAUSE INTESTINAL OBSTRUTION. OF THE 576 MILLION HOOKWORM INFECTIONS...

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