How Do We Determine The Intended Meaning Of A Metaphor?

1993 words - 8 pages

When Ralph Waldo Emerson said that "all men are poets at heart," he might have been exposing a deeper truth than he realized. For even in the coldest, most calculating of minds there are indeed wisps of pure poetry. The metaphor, metaphore, or metaphora is a figure of speech in which a word or phrase literally denotes one kind of object or idea used in place of another to suggest a likeness or analogy between them.Metaphor Comprehension Theories3-step Comprehension Model (Clark & Lucy, 1975)Utterances may have intended meanings that differ from their literal meanings. According to Grice, the intended meaning is based on the cooperative principle maxims of conversation which are mutually agreed to by participants in a conversation. There is the maxim of quantity (say as much and no more than is needed), quality (only say what you believe to be true), relation (be relevant) and manner (be clear). When one of the maxims is broken, an inference that the intended meaning is different from the literal meaning may be possible to make sense of the violation. For example, the utterance "It's cold in here" is an assertion of a self-evident fact in its literal meaning. However, in the assumption of the relevance theory, it may carry the intended meaning of a request "Close the door".Though Grice's works on metaphors and language were generally more philosphical in nature, they sparked the 3-step Comprehension procedure (Clark & Lucy, 1975):1. Derive Literal or Direct Meaning2. Assess Interpretability of the Literal Interpretation against Context of Utterance3. If Anomaly detected, Alternative Nonliteral or Indirect Interpretation is madeAs is with Grice's principle, literal meaning is claimed by this model to be the priority in processing and precedes any alternative interpretation. However, a flaw with this claim is that literal interpretation is often unnecessary to understand nonliteral statements such as idioms and indirect requests. (Gibbs, 1984)Another claim is that anomaly with the literal interpretation must be detected before a nonliteral meaning is derived. This suggests that metaphor comprehension is optional and can be ignored if the statement is literally true. Glucksberg, Gildea & Bookin (1982) conducted a study to test this claim. Subjects were required to decide rapidly if a statement is literally true or not, e.g. Some jobs are jails. Such statements were correctly judged to be literally false but the time taken to judge these metaphorically true statements is significantly longer compared to metaphorically false statements e.g. Some jobs are snakes. This shows that there is an interference caused by an availability of a 'true' metaphorical interpretation, and the option to ignore nonliteral meanings is unavailable. In fact, both nonliteral and literal meanings seem to be derived simultaneously in the same ways. This claim is also invalid when applied to literally true metaphors. There is no faulty literal meaning to trigger an...

Find Another Essay On How do we determine the intended meaning of a metaphor?

How do we know the true geometry of the world

2679 words - 11 pages be handled with care. What, for example, does Poincaré mean by the following: “What, then, are we to think of the question: Is Euclidean geometry true? It has no meaning.” Perhaps this might be interpreted so as to answer the question “How can we know the true geometry of the world?” with “We cannot know the true geometry of the world”. I do not think the answer to our question is so simple as this, though. Conventionalism is not simply an

A Lab experiment on how to determine the enthalpy change of the decomposition of Calcium Carbonate

552 words - 2 pages absorbed is less than the energy released, then the reaction is exothermic and the products are more stable than the reactants and vice versa. But, the enthalpy, or change in energy, of some reactions are too difficult to carry out in a standard laboratory due to toxins released or conditions that cannot be met in simple laboratory. Thus, that's where Hess's Law comes in as it states that if you go from the reactants to the products in one

How Do We Remember the Holocaust Today?

5673 words - 23 pages "). Spreading the word around by means of programs, social media, or projects is an effective way to get people to understand why we remember the Holocaust. Allowing ourselves to form educated opinions of the Holocaust based off of our learning, gives us the ability to grow as a society and help protect the equality that every human being is entitled to without feeling threatened. 282240, 'How Do We Remember the Holocaust Today?', '', 'T', 1717, 14

How do we remember the holocaust?

1205 words - 5 pages Genocide: akldjsfjhfjjldkaslkj. Do you remember the largest genocide of our world, the holocaust? The holocaust was an event that killed over 600,000. The memories and history that is filled throughout the Holocaust is constantly remembered by the world. Constant reminders allow for us to become informed and help diminish the hatred of other races still today. By remembering the Holocaust you are able to become knowledgeable of how to prevent

How Do We Know?

1566 words - 6 pages been set up.Consciousness is determined by the material conditions of life insofar as material conditions determine what experiences we are exposed to, as well as the ideology within which we understand these experiences. Subjective consciousness tends to be shaped in such a way as to support the dominant ideology (which is the most abundant and most accessible source from which subjective consciousness arises) and thus also support the mode of

A Metaphor for the Dimensional Concept of Home

1232 words - 5 pages Movement is only as good as the stillness you can bring to it to put it into perspective. Leslie T. Chang’s travel narrative Factory Girls not only: exonifies the discussion, but is also a metaphor for the multidimensional concept of home. Chang considers many perspectives but chooses to only focus on a select few- all of which bring contrasting and often immiscible arguments only to initiate an vision inward of Chang’s own development and

Cutie as a Metaphor of the Mind in Asimov's Reason

1121 words - 4 pages surroundings. Both these facets are shown by the main character, "Cutie," in Asimov's "Reason." This thought-provoking story uses Cutie, a robot, as a metaphor of the human mind, and on a larger scale, humanity itself. Closer analysis of "Reason" will allow an indepth understanding of :-  (1) how the reasoning process is used to formulate a belief by Cutie, (2) how the human mind uses reason to deal with that which is unknown to humanity.  &nbsp

The Meaning of a Loner

607 words - 2 pages in some countries in Africa this set of people are considered evil because it is the community’s belief that they killed their husband or wife and nobody wants to be around them. In addition, a loner could be a psychic. I was told that when a person is lonely the person begins to think a lot and do the dos and don’ts. Knowing that psychology has to do with the mind and some spiritual settings, my belief is that when a person becomes

the meaning of a friend

1060 words - 4 pages flushed down the toilet. Yet the only thoughts rushing his mind were, “why her?, what could I have done?, how could she do this to me and herself?, why is life so unfair?” with other pending questions, the confusion overcame him.      On a Wednesday Afternoon, about 2:30 p.m., half an hour after his first exam began, He barely rolled out of bed, Eyes half shut he floped down the hallway toward the kitchen, expecting to find

Heart of Darkness - How Do We Encounter Ourselves in the Modern Society

844 words - 3 pages While I was reading the short story “Heart of Darkness,” by Joseph Conrad, I recalled an essay I read back in Korea, titled “Why Do We Read Novels.” The writer of the essay states that the most common reason why we, as people, read novels is that it makes us ask ourselves how the justice or injustice of the real world relates to that of the author’s words. In this way, the short story “Heart of Darkness” portrays the experiences and thoughts of

The Intended Audience of Shrek 2

4694 words - 19 pages they reach ‘Far Far Away’ we see the ‘Kingdom of Far Far Away’ is the setting for a sledgehammer-subtle satire of Hollywood, which never offers anything dangerous or perceptive - just observation that it's glitzy, glamorous, and commercial. The companies whose names are gently mocked probably do not object to the (free?) advertising. The well-known ‘Versace’ becomes ‘Versachery’ and the recognized Hollywood sign has ‘Far

Similar Essays

How Do Children Learn The Meaning Of Words

2203 words - 9 pages How do children learn the meaning of words?This question provokes many different answers from different psychologists based on how they choose to explore it. This essay will mainly focus on the nature vs nurture approach, looking at the inbuilt Language Acquisition Device (LAD) and the Language Acquisition Support System (LASS). It will also look at common errors children make as they acquire language and the type of language acquired first.When

How Do You Determine Gender? Essay

769 words - 4 pages SBI3U Genetics Assignment Opinion Paper: How Do You Determine Gender? Within our day and age, many scientific practices such as abortion have been contested due to social and ethical morals. A controversial topic which emerged in the mid-1960s was the gender-verification of female athletes competing internationally. The International Olympic Committee alongside the International Amateur Athletics Federation established a mandatory test for

A History Of Technology And The Inevitable Effects It's Had On How We Do Things

1590 words - 7 pages , and shoes can now track how long a person has run for. New technology is all around the human population to make lives easier, but what happens when the advancements are abused and then expected in everyday life? Computers, cell phones, video games, and social medias are now a part of human culture, and can be harmful. “Video and computer games, smart phones and tablets, social media and the Internet provide a variety of access points that can

To Kill A Mockingbird Metaphor Meaning

1109 words - 4 pages asked Miss Maudie about it, Miss Maudie tells her, “Mockingbirds don’t do one thing but make music for us to enjoy… but they sing their hearts out for us. That’s why it’s a sin to kill a mockingbird.” Killing something so innocent would be a sin because it had never done anything to hurt you. The mocking bird was important enough to be in the title of the book, giving it extra meaning and extra importance. The title To Kill a Mockingbird carries
FREE INQUIRY | Lillian Ellen Jones | Die.Macht.des.Boesen.2017.German.DL.1080p.B