Literature Review

2102 words - 9 pages

In the field of second and foreign language learning, there are several theoretical constructs that address the roles and effects of certain variables in language learning. Understanding language learners by examining their attitudes, perceptions and beliefs is pertinent in understanding how languages are learnt and taught (Wesely, 2012). The inquiry into learner attitudes, perceptions and beliefs have been long grounded by seminal work of researchers such as Gardner’s (1985) exploration of motivation and attitude based on the socio-educational model, Horwitz’s work with anxiety (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986) and the exploration of foreign language learning attitude and perception (Sparks, Ganschow, & Javorsky, 1993).

It is undeniable that with regards to language learning, motivation and attitude is a central element in determining success in second language learning in either enhancing or hampering learner’s language achievement (Gardner, 2001; Sartore, Sollier, & Soto, 2012). Gardner’s socio-educational model (1979, 1985, 2001) indicated four categories of variables that are interrelated when acquiring a language, namely: 1) social milieu (1979, 1985) or external influences (2001); 2) individual differences; 3) language acquisition contexts and, 4) outcomes. The first variable, social milieu refers to the individual’s cultural beliefs or environment and it plays a role as influencing both affective and cognitive individual differences among language learners. The second variable, individual differences includes four sub-variables (two cognitive and two affective factors) which are intelligence (a determiner of how quick and how well the learner will acquire the language), language aptitude (verbal and cognitive abilities), motivation (effort, desire and affect – it determines how active and how hard the learner will work to acquire the second language) and finally, situational anxiety (it is seen as an inhibiting effect on the learner’s performance in acquiring a second language). According to Gardner, these four individual differences are the most influential in acquiring a second language. Meanwhile, the fourth variable, outcomes includes linguistic outcomes (various aspects of proficiency i.e., vocabulary, grammar, aural comprehension, oral production, etc) and non-linguistic outcomes (other consequences of language learning such as language anxiety, various attitudes, motivation, willingness to communicate, etc) (Gardner, 2001). It is obvious that the interaction of all four variables reflects the continuing and interrelated process of second language learning. Arnold and Brown (1999) described that the term affect has to do with aspects of our emotional being and it is broadly considered as aspects of emotion, feeling, mood or attitude which condition behaviour such as anxiety, inhibition, motivation and such. They further elaborated that affective side of learning should not be separated with the cognitive side and a combination of...

Find Another Essay On Literature Review

Literature Review

1240 words - 5 pages employees had a profound affect on the productivity of those employees. The article also describes numerous University conferences at which Mayo's teachings on human relations were the main emphasis and how his theories continue to be a source of inspiration.Literature Review: Elton Mayo's Human Relations MovementI chose a literature review of Elton Mayo's Human Relations Movement because of its connection to Sociology and Psychology. Mayo felt

literature review

973 words - 4 pages might sound harmful it can also provide benefits to the human body. Throughout this review it hypothetically shows the correlation between the consumption of caffeinated coffee and how it can reduce the symptoms or even prevent the risk of having Parkinson’s disease. These next six literature reviews will provide its hypothesis and studies based on this research. The first article written and reviewed by multiple authors explains the connection

literature review

1739 words - 7 pages Literature Review Images within today’s mass media have had a tremendous effect on the influences of the female body image. In order to understand the details of body image it must be define. Body image will be defined in two different definitions, one from the Webster Dictionary and the other from The Online Dictionary. Within the Webster Dictionary, body image is defined as “a subjective picture of one's own physical appearance established

Literature Review

2588 words - 11 pages Literature Review Trait theory is "an individuals relatively consistent way of thinking, feeling, and behaving across situations" in relation to communication (Littlejohn & Foss, 2011). Trait theory could also be classified as a personality theory since personality is what causes a person to behave a certain way due to his or her emotional qualities, or way of thinking and feeling. Communication is " the act or process of using words, sounds

Literature Review

3206 words - 13 pages Literature Review The purpose of the study The Purpose of the study was to trace and analyze the impact of sales personnel in the used car industry. The study focuses on the current ways in which used car dealers are marketing their products in the Kingston Metropolitan area. The assessment will be done on the following areas: 1. To what extent do salesperson competence impact on profitability 2. How profitable are salespersons

Writing a literature review

1022 words - 4 pages Writing a literature reviewIt is impossible to be dogmatic about the form and content of a litereature review; it depends somewhat on the topic. You do now have to follow my recipe slavishly; intelligent dissent is admired and encouraged.A literature review that is part of a thesis is different from what you are doing as part of coursework: A thesis literature review culminates in research questions and hypotheses on which the research to be

Review of Qualitative Literature

1777 words - 7 pages Review of Qualitative Literature Qualitative methods use a different approach to scholarly research than quantitative methods. According to Creswell (2014), although similar in processes, qualitative methods rely on text and image data, have unique steps in data analysis, and draw on diverse designs in the qualitative study. There is now an increased publication of articles using qualitative methods as it became more acceptable, especially in

Managing Diversity Literature Review

1743 words - 7 pages In this paper we explore previous literature on the subject of managing diversity. We begin by looking at the various definitions of diversity. An analysis of the arguments found in the literature for, and against, workplace diversity is then presented. We then look at the results of empirical research conducted to examine the affects of diversity on organisational performance. A number of cases are included to illustrate real world examples to

Employee Empowerment: Literature Review

2296 words - 9 pages Nottingham. Acheampong, I.A. and Asamoah, A., 2013. Service delivery and business growth among banks in Ghana using the service profit chain model. International Journal of Global Business, 6(2), pp.1-79. Al Sada, A., 2003. A literature review of empowerment with a suggested model for Bahrain Defence Force. MBA. Naval Postgraduate School. Argyris, C., 1998. Empowerment: The emperor's new clothes. Harvard Business Review, 76(3), pp.97-105

Literature Review: Nurse retention

1668 words - 7 pages dissatisfaction. Review of the Literature In a mixed method study, researchers Van den Heede, Florquin, Bruyneel, Aiken, Diya, Lesaffree, and Sermeus (2013) examined the link between a nurse’s desire to leave the hospital and his/her educational background, nurse staffing, and the overall environment in the healthcare setting. The researchers surveyed 3186 nurses on staff at 56 hospitals; 52 academic hospitals and 4 non-academic hospitals. The

Literature Review #2

968 words - 4 pages Introduction “Richard Gilman, American Theater Critic: An Appreciation” is another brilliant piece of literature by Bert Cardullo. The article itself talks a little more about the differentiation between reviewers and critics, but focuses deeply on one particular critic: Richard Gilman. This time, the main theme for this article is Theatrical Critics. “Richard Gilman, American Theater Critic: An Appreciation” was published in 2011 and is one of

Similar Essays

Literature Review 2065 Words

2065 words - 8 pages IntroductionPURPOSE OF THIS REVIEWThis literature review and synthesis aims at developing a knowledge base to inform the Ministry of Education onHow to develop, implement, and maintain online communities of practice (Cops), and how communicationTechnologies can be used to support them. From the Request for Proposals (RFP), the Ministry of EducationIntended that this review would:• Ensure that the Ministry is well informed by the growing

Literature Review

1427 words - 6 pages Literature Review Section This section discusses the research related to reduce the wastage of blood products including blood bank inventory management, various policies and methodologies used for blood bank centers of United States as well as in other parts of the world. The concepts and tools applied to these studies are directly relevant and correlate with my research project. Therefore, I have decided to discuss on these articles for my

Literature Review 1523 Words

1523 words - 6 pages Chapter IILiterature ReviewA review of the literature revealed the following key predictors: (1) celebrity performance, (2) negative information, (3) celebrity credibility, (4) celebrity expertise, (5) celebrity trustworthiness, (6) celebrity attractiveness, (7) celebrity familiarity, (8) celebrity likeability, and (9) celebrity/ product fit. Each predictor is examined below.2.1. Celebrity performanceIn the context of this study, celebrity

Literature Review

1483 words - 6 pages specific magazine ads or not, has yet to be answered. This analysis will challenge this proposition to see if a relationship, positive or negative, exists within university-aged females through the implementation of the Photographic Figure Rating Scale and structured qualitative interviews (Swami et al., 2008). It will focus on two correlates of body dissatisfaction: social comparison and objectification theory. Literature Review Accompanying
Power Rangers 2017 2160p 4K UHD 10bit HDR BluRay 7.1 x265 HEVC-MZABI | Malerei & Kalligraphie | Karl Lagerfeld Classic XXL 150 ml (keine 125 ml oder 100ml) Eau de Toilette EDT