Modernisation, Globalisation And Americanisation Essay

2480 words - 10 pages

The U.S has experienced new ways of establishing and encouraging capitalist economic expansion and political constancy and "social order" in the U.S.A and other countries; this is through the concept known as modernisation. Modernisation is best understood in relation to processes of industrialisation, urbanisation, secularisation, rationalisation, and the development of world market systems. Modernisation occurs when societies, when countries adopt the processes or characteristics of another which they deem to be positive to their way of life.To avoid this labeling, generalisations of cultural theory are better replaced with ethnographic particularities. As Comaroff and Comaroff put it:"The radical opposition between pre-historical 'tradition' and capitalist 'modernity' survives in the discourses of our age, popular and professional alike. Indeed, in directing much of our attention to peoples on the other side of the great rift, do we not still foster a lurking primitivism? And, with it, all the myths of our own disenchantment?"The modernisation theory can be seen in two theories of social change, they can inter relate and mesh in some cases.A. - The Evolutionary TheoryB. - Functionalist TheoryA. - THE EVOLUTIONARY THEORY1. Social change being uni linear (moving in a single direction) ordered and progressive. So starting from a primitive state and evolving from there.2. This movement is overall a good thing, because as humanity progresses so does civilisation, which benefits humanity.3. It states that the rate of social change is a slow, gradual process. Most importantly, social change, in agreement with Charles Darwin approach to biological development, was evolutionary, not revolutionary.B. - FUNCTIONALIST THEORY,Society is made up of different institutions and each must keep to its specific function in order for society to work harmoniously. Change occurs when this harmony is disrupted. So modernisation occurs when a society whose values are not based around the progressive nature of modernisation will experience change when they come in contact or adopt these new ideas. Hence a society that relies of agriculture will experience massive change if it starts experiencing forms of industrialisation.It is these functions that can be divided into 3 main ideas for the process to work and develop.Adaptations to the environment; performed by the economy, but not any economic system, only capitalism propelled through modernisation and globalisation can adapt to the environment.Goal attainment; performed by the government. That is the government's role in the economy, and how they help or prevent the changes from happening.Integration; that is the linking of institutions together. The Legal, economical, religious in some cases. The state of all these concepts together and how they function will affect the effect of modernisation in a country.For Rostow, the processes of change were simpler. He suggested that ..."all societies will eventually come under...

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