The range of planning powers, controls and policies should be reduced. Explain how one might agree and disagree with this statement.
I will approach this title focusing on planning in the UK. First briefly defining powers, controls and policies as they are today. A quick historical review of the modern planning system and changes to it will help give context in deciding whether to increase or decrease them. I'll then move on to a discussion on the factors and organizations likely to cause change in the planning system.
Planning powers are in the UK known as Delegated powers. These enable planning officers make decisions on applications. In doing so planning officers are allowed a level of discretion and can engage in pre-application negotiations with developers.
Controls are the system by which individual planning applications are assessed. Developments good enough for the public interest are allowed and others refused on an ad-hoc basis. Local planning authorities have statutory responsibility for this. Controls are known as development Control and are guided by Planning Policies from the government.
Planning policies are prepared by the government and detail statutory provisions and guidance to local authorities. They come in the form of Planning Policy Guidance Notes (PPGs) and now Planning Policy Statements (PPSs). These documents explain relationships not only between land use issues but to other areas of legislation that must be considered in the formulation of local plans (Communities and Local Government [undated]).
The modern system of planning powers, controls and policies grew from concerns for public health in the nineteenth-century. Before the nineteenth-century landowners and developers had an almost free reign on land use decision. This led to high density housing and a rapid urbanisation. Environmental and social problems grew, drawing critical attention and action. First medical advancements meant unsanitary conditions were targeted as a source of poor health. Soon overcrowding was seen to be a source of economic cost and measures had to be taken (Cullingworth & Nadin 2006). Planning problems came to be seen as regional in nature leading to increasing numbers of powers, controls and policies as well as bodies to oversee and enforce them.
The Town and Country Planning Act 1947 was the source of much of today's planning system. It made all development subject to planning permission and introduced mandatory development plans (Cullingworth & Nadin 2006). It also introduce a system by which developers were made to pay a 100 per cent charge for land value increases resulting from development. This charge would remain in one form or another for many years. A decrease in planning powers in 1953 led to a housing boom leading to new problems such as ribbon development and congestion.
The mid twentieth-century saw more powers, controls and policies introduced again focusing on quality of life. Ebenezer Howard and the garden...