Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (Pih) And Preeclampsia Essay

1052 words - 4 pages

Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH) and Preeclampsia

A. Discussion of disease/condition

1. Incidence

Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH) is a multi-organ disease process that develops as a result of pregnancy and regresses in the postpartum period. It usually develops after 20 weeks of gestation in a woman who had normal blood pressure. It is defined as an elevation of systolic and diastolic pressures equal to or above 140/90 mm Hg. In clinical practice, the terms PIH and preeclampsia are used interchangeable, but in preeclampsia the woman also has protein in her urine indicating that there is renal involvement as well. The only know cure for preeclampsia is delivery of the fetus. It is a relatively common problem of pregnancy and affects about 8% of all pregnancies. (Murray, p680)

2. Risk factors

There are many factors that increase a woman's risk. Those include women who are having their first baby, those under 17 years old, women who are obese, having diabetes mellitus, chronic hypertension, or preexisting vascular disease and women with multi-fetal gestation. Also a woman is more likely to have preeclampsia if the mother or sister has the disorder. (Murray, p681)

3. Etiology and Pathophysiology

Preeclampsia is due to generalized vasospasm. In natural pregnancy, vascular volume and cardiac output increase significantly, but despite these increases, blood pressure does not rise in normal pregnancy. This is because pregnant women resistance to the effects of vasoconstrictors such as angiotension. However, in preeclampsia, peripheral vascular resistance increase because some women are sensitive to angiotension

Vasospasm decrease the diameter of blood vessels which results in endothelia cell damage, impeded blood flow and elevated blood pressure. As a result of this circulation to all body organs, including the kidneys, liver, brain and placenta, is decreased. This will cause many changes such as decreased venal perfusion, glomerular damage, impaired liver function, small cerebral hemorrhages, pulmonary edema, dyspnea and decreased placental circulation. Decrease placental circulation can result in infarctions that increase the risk for abruptio placentae. Also when maternal blood flows through the placenta is decreased, the fetus is likely to experience intrauterine growth restriction and persistent fetal hypoxemia and acidosis (Murray, p679-681)

4. Signs and Symptoms

Hypertension, generalized edema and proteinuria are the three classic signs of preeclampsia. The first sign is that a pregnant women may notice is edema and a rapid weight gain which are due to fluid retention.

Hypertension is defined as sustained blood pressure equal to or above 140/90. Blood pressure should be taken in the sitting position with the arm supported in a horizontal position at hear level.

Proteinuria usually develops later than hypertension an edema. The combination of proteinuria and hypertension...

Find Another Essay On Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension (PIH) and Preeclampsia

Preeclampsia & Eclampsia Essay

2282 words - 9 pages , 2012, p. 469). The BUBBLEHED assessment is also a very important part of postpartum care of an individual who was diagnosed with preeclampsia during pregnancy. Specific areas to focus on are the overall fundal condition such as its firmness and location, the clonus test, deep tendon reflexes, amount and color of lochia, and any visualized edema. Any indications of a rising pule or lack of urine output can be a sign of excessive blood loss and

asdf Essay

2047 words - 9 pages , 2010; Toh et al., 2009). De Vera et al. (2012) found a 53% increased risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension associated with intrauterine antidepressant use, independent of maternal age or depression symptoms. Other studies have found important connections between the timing of SSRI exposure and preeclampsia (De Vera et al., 2012). Palmsten et al. (2011) found that women with depression diagnoses and antidepressant dispensings between gestational

Discuss the Importance of Natural Killer Cells in the Maintenance of a Successful Pregnancy

2705 words - 11 pages recognition causes the uNK cells to accumulate in high numbers at the sights of trophoblasts. Once accumulated, cytokines will be produced and these cause migration. An example would be interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10). Once produced by uNK cells they will cause trophoblasts to migrate to the site of spiral arteries (Hanna et al. 2006). uNK cells produce many cytokines and growth factors important for pregnancy

Pregnancy Problem

871 words - 4 pages frequently through Ultrasounds to keep tract of her baby growth and development also checking and evaluating her baby heart rate through fetal heat monitoring which helps in maintaining the baby’s well-being. Jaclyn’s last doctor’s visit and test revealed that she has developed Preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is a serious condition characterized by high blood pressure and protein in the urine after 20 weeks of pregnancy. Left untreated

A Study Investigating Pregnancy Outcome in Women with Visual Impairment

697 words - 3 pages vaginal delivery. As mentioned, autoimmune disease has an influence on pregnancy outcomes. Pregnancies of women suffering from psoriasis were likely to end in CS and women with psoriasis tend to suffer more from hypertension and recurrent miscarriages [12]. For women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), perinatal morbidity and mortality are significantly increased in pregnancies [13, 14]. Lupus patients also had a higher risk for cesarean

Children having Children: Teenage Pregnancy

2433 words - 10 pages also the baby. Teen pregnancies have a higher risk for complications on both spectrums. Mainstream complications include but do not limit too significant anemia, placenta previa, induced hypertension, premature delivery and toxemia. Unborn babies receive the most of the effects of the early teen pregnancy, first being that the fetus loses out on nutrients from the still growing mother. More importantly, “Teenage mothers are less likely to gain

Teenage Pregnancy

1728 words - 7 pages the mothers hands, feet and face, and organ damage. Typically all these symptoms occur around the same time. The high blood pressure is known as hypertension. which is not good. and leads to pregnancy-induced-hypertension(Teenage Pregnancy). So being aware of the risks can help a mother acknowledge what her body may be doing. Overall, it is obviously seen that teenagers are not fit to be parents at such a young age. They need to be informed of

Asthma During Pregnancy:

865 words - 3 pages supply to your baby and it may feel suffocated, and be under danger. 5. Untreated asthma in pregnancy can result in hypertension and preeclampsia, putting the baby at risk. 6. The high blood pressure caused during asthma can affect your kidney, placenta and liver 7. The mother may has to go through unexpected labor pain during labor, which is pacified by induction Many women, who have experienced asthma before pregnancy, and are under

Abortion Contradicts Religious Ethics

1566 words - 6 pages save the mother’s life. Many complications during the pregnancy such as severe infection, heart failure, severe case of preeclampsia, and organ failure are all life threatening (McCarthy 4). Many of these cases end in the loss of both mother and child or just the child. However, in some cases, the mother’s life can be saved with the abortion of the child. When a severe infection such as Toxoplasma Gondi, caused by clinical disease, is present in the

Professional Women from Higher Income having Children Later in Life

963 words - 4 pages are studies that show once women who are 35 to 40 are diagnosed with a "normal," viable pregnancy, the outcome will generally be favorable. Her baby should deliver at term with a birth weight comparable to infants born to younger women. She is not significantly more likely to bleed, develop hypertension or preeclampsia, have early labor or need an operative vaginal delivery. Maternal age over 40, however, is considered an independent risk factor

The Risks of Child bearing at a Late Age

845 words - 4 pages occur to older mothers than to younger mothers. The first class of outcomes at some length. Medical research has linked delayed childbearing to the following dangerous but usually temporary outcomes: 1.) “Problems during pregnancy, such as hypertension, hyperthyroidism, gestational diabetes, macrosomia, premature contractions, and uteroplacental bleeding, all of which may lead to a preterm delivery. (van Katwijk and Peters 1998; Ananth, Wilcox

Similar Essays

Life With Preeclampsia Essay

1274 words - 6 pages fact, symptoms can resemble those that occur in a healthy, regular pregnancy. Symptoms may include edema (caused by the accumulation of excess fluid), severe or dull headaches, back and shoulder pain, or the most well known symptom, hypertension. There are other factors that may be relevant to the onset of preeclampsia. These factors include proteinuria (protein in the urine) and albuminuria (albumin in the urine). Preeclampsia can temporarily

Roles Of The Cardiovascular System Essay

914 words - 4 pages elastic tissue and less smooth muscle and carry blood to the heart from the body. The heart wall has three layers that surround the heart. The outer most layer is the epicardium, middle layer is the myocardium, inner layer is the endocardium. The main purpose of this article is to see what factors can contribute to the risk of induced Hypertension and Preeclampsia during a pregnancy. This article states that Preeclampsia and Hypertension can

Preeclampsia: A Review

960 words - 4 pages Preeclampsia is a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide.1 It is a syndrome characterized by proteinuria, hypertension, and edema that occurs after 20 weeks gestation and affects 3% to 7% of all pregnancies. 2, 3 Preeclampsia usually occurs in women in their first pregnancy or in women having twins. Untreated preeclampsia leads to eclampsia, a condition defined by the presence of grand mal seizures.4 Together

Heart To Heart; Pregnant Women With Hypertension

1055 words - 5 pages , researchers suggested that moderate exercise is effective in controlling weight in order to prevent hypertensive disorder. Overall, this article assembles the information of signs, symptoms of hypertension, preeclampsia and future treatments of hypertensive disorders. To verify these information that article provided, there are many evidences that confirm this article is reliable. Medications for Hypertension in Pregnancy In a general term
Dragonball Super | Hundred To Go Serie TV Streaming Download | Vengadores Infinity War TS-Screener