In 1991, the European Commission began the liberalization of the European railways. The primary aim for the liberalization was to advance, rail freight and intermodal services as an alternative for road transports. However, to impose such policies was to help oversee the growing environmental and congestion concerns. However, expectations of increased EIT flows were not being fulfilled. According to the European Commission of 2002, “EIT almost doubled from 33 to 64 million metric tonnes-km between 1990 and 2000,” states Koning.
Regardless of the policies and directives, the rail system correlated with the freight movement began to weaken. In 2002, nearly 44 percent of the freight in Europe was transported with over the road trucking. The roadway transports were carrying about 80 percent of all commodities. Since then, the EC stressed the urgent need to decrease the national impediment to ensure uninterrupted cross border trade movement.
The deregulation of the European railway network forced a separation of the production systems for passenger and cargo. Thus, the freight industries and load size of the intermediate service continued to decrease from the nonfunctional rail system. With the liberalization, new rail system companies could enter the European railway market and compete with other transport modes. This flexibility was believed in the preservation through an amalgamation of different freight cars, intermodal services, and extensive market exposures however, all was lost. Equally, the liberalization of the approved policy intended to revitalize the railroad industry in the EU, January 2007. Until then, only international freight services, which represented about half of the entire market of the railway transport of goods in Europe.
The European Commission hoped for a significant change in rail freight by attracting new investors with offering services that are more conformed to the pressures of the freight market. However, the expectations targeted an increase in market shares. Nevertheless, in Bavaria, this scenario is not exactly the case. Fewer railway freight trains are moving, but truck transports have overtaken the...