Shipwrecks, Corrosion And Conservation Essay

4383 words - 18 pages

6: Option - Shipwrecks, Corrosion and Conservation
6.1: The chemical composition of the ocean implies its potential role as an electrolyte

Identify the origins of the minerals in oceans as:

leaching by rainwater from terrestrial environments
hydrothermal vents in mid-ocean ridges

Identify - recognise and name

There are 2 major sources of the salts in seawater:

Leaching by rain and ground water.
Dissolution of salts by water passing through hydrothermal vents.

LEACHING BY RAIN AND GROUND WATER

The main ions that are dissolved as rainwater percolates through the soil and makes its way into creeks and rivers are Na, Ca, Mg, Cl and SO4.
Water that seeps down into underground aquifers dissolves greater quantities of these ions and under certain conditions (slightly lower pH than normal) picks up significant amounts of Hydrogen Carbonate (by dissolving carbonate)
Small amounts of nitrate and phosphate are also dissolved: these result from decay of plant and animal matter.
Although leaching of salts from the ground is a natural process, it has been significantly increased by human activities such as clear felling of forests, land clearing for pastoral pursuits and cultivation for crop growing.
Some underground aquifers pick up high concentrations of sodium chloride (from the many salt deposits that exist there), and these carry large amounts of salt to the oceans.

HYDROTHERMAL VENTS

Mid-ocean ridges (often containing fissures or cracks in the rock) exist near the Earth's crust.
Seawater is able to percolate down these fissures and come close to the up-welling magma and so the water is heated to high temperatures at high pressures.
This hot water is forced back into the ocean through other fissures in the form of hot springs.
As this hot water passes through these cracks it dissolves ionic substance from the rocks.
These releases of hot water back to the ocean are called HYDROTHERMAL VENTS.
When the hot water from hydrothermal vents meets cold ocean water, many of the salts crystallise out of solution and settle as mineral deposits on the ocean floor.

Outline the role of electron transfer in oxidation-reduction reactions

Outline - sketch in general terms; indicate the main features of

Magnesium reacting with chlorine is an oxidation/reduction reaction. This involves electron transfer:

Mg  Mg2+ + 2é [O] is loss of electrons

Cl2 + 2é Cl [R] is gain of electrons

Identify that oxidation-reduction reactions can occur when ions are free to move in liquid electrolytes

Identify - recognise and name

Electron transfer reactions can occur in electrolytes where ions are free to move.

Describe the work of Galvani, Volta, Davy and Faraday in increasing understanding of electron transfer reactions

Describe - provide characteristics and features

Process information from secondary sources to outline and analyse the impact of the...

Find Another Essay On Shipwrecks, Corrosion and Conservation

Wrought iron material pathology Essay

2288 words - 10 pages Carbon. The lack of Carbon in the iron makes it resistance to corrosion for a longer period of time. The corrosion process is prolonged due to the lack of Carbon content. Wrought iron has good properties strength because it is strong in both tension and compression. It is more fibrous in texture, more ductile and has a good resistance of corrosion compared to cast iron (Kent, 1888). Even though the good prospect in structure, because of the

Freshwater Mussels Essay

1598 words - 6 pages against the zebra mussels. Zebra mussels colonize pipes, which constricts flow. Navigational and recreational boating can be affected by drag due to mussel attachment. They also damage engine cooling systems, fishing gear, dock pilings, and also cause the corrosion of steel. Conservation against Zebra Mussels - Two institutions have been involved in conservation or rather protection of native mussels from zebra mussels. Their attempt is to

Zoos: Internment Camps or Shelters?

1233 words - 5 pages Are zoos prisons for animals? Are zoos refuges for animal? Are zoos educational institutions or are they only for entertainment? The debate reference the real purpose of zoos has been taking place for a long period. Are so many questions in the air when are they referring to animal care, animal conservation, and/or animal extinction. It is hard to be bios in a theme that is contradictory for many people. This theme involves also many pro and con

Scombridae: Mackerels and Tunas

1049 words - 4 pages all of their development occurs over continental shelf. Common depths are from 15-45 meters deep but have also been found 150 meters deep in places around the Gulf Stream. Typically occur in areas with reefs, shipwrecks, shelves, and sometimes near shore around piers. Adults sometime come inshore on higher tides and or in the summer. The salinity range for them is between 32-36 parts per thousand. Close off the North Carolina coast, king

The Great Barrier Reef

1172 words - 5 pages , etc. The boats used for fishing could be affecting the water quality. Diminishing water quality is not helping the process as well, “Disrupting the pH balance of the water can slow down the regeneration of the corals and other calcium-based organism” (The Top 3 Reasons Why the Reef Is Dying). The water is being polluted by toxins from chemicals in the runoff used on farms and other lands, oil spills, and shipwrecks. The “disrupting of the pH

Coral Reefs

1562 words - 6 pages cement for new buildings. Tourists often bring home coral souvenirs, and these souvenirs can create long term damage to the reef. Climate change is hurting the reefs as well. Coral reefs cannot live if the water temperature is too high. Global warming has already led to increased levels of coral bleaching.Fortunately, there are still ways to make a difference in the conservation of coral reefs. There are many groups around the world dedicated to

yghehesrhsehre

1066 words - 4 pages Hard,but brittle,corrodes rapidly Decorative iron Structural steel Medium carbon content, Iron Strong,hard,corrodes rapidly Railways and girders,bridges Mil steel Low carbon content,Iron Fairly strong, but malleable and ductile,coroodes rapidly Car bodies,ship hull and nuts and bolts. Stainless Steel Chromium and nickel and Iron Hard and shiny,resistant to corrosion. Cutlery,surgical equipment ,taps etc Galvanic cell

BP Oil

1127 words - 5 pages exploration, drilling and production (Mouawad, 2010).BP continued to have problems in Alaska, in 2006 BP shut down operations in Pruhoe Bay, Alaska. The oil wells were leaking an insulating agent called Artic pack; it consisted of crude oil and diesel fuel and it was leaking between the wells and ice. Over the course of time BP had spilled over one million liters of oil in Alaska's North Slope (Mouawad, 2010). The corrosion was caused by sediment

Should Manganese Nodules Be Exploited As A Source Of Metal? Should We Continue Exploiting Manganese Nodules As A Source Of Metal, Taking Into Consideration All The Moral Aspects

1797 words - 8 pages , as it has the ability to react with sulphur and has powerful deoxidization capacities. Therefore, when manganese is present in steel, it reacts with the unwanted amounts of sulphur, preventing the iron from forming sulphides, and it removes the oxygen through its deoxidization properties. Manganese also plays another fundamental role in the steel production. It can form alloys with iron and carbon, to form durable, corrosion-resistant, stronger

Eco-tourism Causes Damage to the Environment

1411 words - 6 pages upkeep (Brown 2011). However, tourism in natural areas cannot be considered and be defined as sustainable ecotourism unless it possesses the basic qualities. First of all, a sustainable ecotourism area must be able create thoughtful and attentiveness towards local environments and cultures. Conservation initiatives must be supported financially as well as empowerment and contribution of locals as a concerted project (Davis 2007). Simply put it, both

Eco-tourism Causes Damage to the Environment Instead of Conserving It

1497 words - 6 pages upkeep (Brown 2011). However, tourism in natural areas cannot be considered and be defined as sustainable ecotourism unless it possesses the basic qualities. First of all, a sustainable ecotourism area must be able create thoughtful and attentiveness towards local environments and cultures. Conservation initiatives must be supported financially as well as empowerment and contribution of locals as a concerted project (Davis 2007). Simply put it, both

Similar Essays

Archeology: Our Own Time Machine Essay

2594 words - 10 pages , archaeology has been unsurpassed. It is the literal and figurative digging up of the forgotten past. However, a great portion of our history has been lost to us because it lies beneath the vast depths of the ocean. Shipwrecks are the records of "moments in time" and often contain much information about people and life onboard. They encapsulate bits of history. Shipwrecks, however, are a non-renewable resource and once they are disturbed or

From Brazen Archaeologist To An Institute Of Study

1681 words - 7 pages “Since at least the Bronze Age, seafaring has been key to cultural progress. Ships are in some cases the most technologically advanced equipment a culture would develop—their space shuttles. So to really understand the ancients, you have to be able to understand how they approached the sea, and the only way to do that is to excavate shipwrecks. And those ships only sank once, so they can give you incredibly precise dates.” (Bass 2012) It used

An Analysis Of The Properties Of Aluminum

1550 words - 6 pages , about a third that of steel. For example, the use of aluminium in vehicles reduces dead-weight and energy consumption while increasing load capacity. Its strength can be adapted to the application required by modifying the composition of its alloys. Corrosion Resistance Aluminium naturally generates a protective oxide coating and is highly corrosion resistant. Different types of surface treatment such as

Aluminum Essay

1218 words - 5 pages spoilage. Because of its light weight, ease of forming, and compatibility with foods and beverages, aluminum is widely used for containers, flexible packages, and easy-to-open bottles and cans. The recycling of such containers is an increasingly important energy-conservation measure. Aluminum's resistance to corrosion in salt water also makes it useful in boat hulls and various aquatic devices. A wide variety of coating alloys and wrought alloys can
El Capitan (The Captain) [BluRay Rip][AC3 5 1 Castellano][2018][ | Computer Data Storage - 882 Words | Read Essay