The Human Genome Project (Hgp) Essay

3246 words - 13 pages

Has the Human Genome Project created viable mechanisms that enable or disable the sustainability of the human population?

The definition of sustainability is “the ability to be upheld or defended” (Oxford South African Pocket Dictionary, 2006, p912.). The sustainability of the human population has been one of the most imperial factors in terms of our existence. From every realm of profession, thinkers all over the world have been looking for ideas that would give us a secure way to definitely increase our longevity. This is why I believe the discovery of the human genome has opened many windows of opportunities that securely sustain our existence due to providing information about terminal diseases.
The discovery of the human genome has led to innovative methods that have provided the purest understanding of the human anatomy. In conjunction, the mapping of the human genome has created mechanisms that allow the human population to be less susceptible to diseases.
The Human Genome Project (HGP) was as international biological research that was co-ordinated by the National Institute of Health and the U.S. Department of Energy in the year of 1990. The HGP had a primary goal of mapping out and sequencing the nucleotides that are present in the fundamental structure DNA, identify all the genes and develop faster methods of mapping out DNA.
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)

Deoxyribonucleic acid is “a self-replicating material which is present in all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes; it is also the carrier of genetic information” (Oxford Dictionary online, no date). This structure is located in the nucleus and is made up of a sugar molecule (deoxyribose), a Phosphate molecule (P) and four nitrogenous bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine; together these make the monomer of DNA: the nucleotide.
The genetic information is coded in the form of the base letters A, C, T and G. The different structure of the bases allow adenine to only bond with thymine or uracil (in terms of Ribonucleic Acid(RNA)) by means of a double Hydrogen bond (A=T, A=U). Furthermore, Cytosine will only bond with guanine by a triple hydrogen bond (C≡G) (Jen Grogan and Ruth Suter 2010 p3. 1. 2).

A special characteristic of DNA is that, it has the ability of replicating itself and creating a DNA daughter molecule that is identical to the original DNA molecule. This ability is quite profound as it ensures that the genetic code is passed onto each daughter cell. Segments of DNA bring about genes and these are situated on the chromosome. These genes then bring about characteristics within an individual (Jen Grogan and Ruth Suter 2010 p.3. 3.1).

Chromosomes and Genes:
“Chromosomes are long thread-like structures that form a part of the chromatin network” (Jen Grogan and Ruth Suter 2010). DNA in living organisms structures the chromatin network within the nucleus. Genes can be defined as “a section of DNA (series of nucleotides/bases) that controls...

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