The Process Of Water Treatment Essay

1349 words - 6 pages

Malaysian consumed an average of 230 liters of water per person per day. Furthermore, Malaysian’s water consumption per capita per day is alarmingly high and increasingly about 7.6 liters per year (Kerri, 2008). Water plays an important role for humans as natural resource needed for both drinking and irrigation purposed. The increases of population as well as the increase in economic and industrial activities have led to high demand for water. In order to produce potable water, water treatment process must be conducted properly. According to Miller (2009), there are six important treatment processes which are coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, ion exchange, absorption, and disinfection. (Refer to Figure 1 in Appendix 1).
Firstly, water is allowed to undergo coagulation process. The principle of coagulation process is to remove turbidity from the water, microorganisms, chemical in solution, colloidal and suspended solids (Binnie & Kimber, 2002). Turbidity refers to a cloudy appearance of water due to existence of small particles suspended. Hence, no turbidity results in clearer water. The most frequently used coagulants are aluminium sulphate (alum) and iron salts. Basically, most of the dissolved particles in water bear negative charges that have a tendency to repel each other. In order to clump the particles together, alum which consists of positive charges is added. Therefore, negative charges particles magnetize towards the positive charges that resulted in a neutral or lack of charge. When there is no repelling amongst the particles, Van der Waal’s forces assembles the particles. Finally, the particles settled out from the water. However, Pizzi’s (2010) study suggests that the amount of alum added to the water must be in a correct proportion to prevent overdosing and deficiency of alum. Moreover, coagulants added in the water need to be mixed rapidly and in high energy to produce good coagulation and to achieve complete homogenization (Water & Process Technologies, 2012).
The second step is sedimentation process. Unlike coagulation, sedimentation is to improve the filtration process by eliminating suspended particles that presence in the previous step. Generally, water is allowed to pass through a motionless basin and cause the suspended particles to settle down. This process resulted in clear water comes out from the basin. Accumulation of suspended particles causes the formation of sludge. In addition, gravity forces enhance the suspended particles to settle down properly (World Health Organization, 2004). The unwanted sludge is removed by using a mechanical device known as sludge collection. Sludge collection scraps the sludge towards a collection point and transfers it to a sludge treatment process. Clarifiers also used in sedimentation, which encompass one or more basins. The clarifiers “are relatively large open tanks and are circular and rectangular in shape” (Pizzi, 2010, p. 8). Clarifier is responsible in reducing the velocity...

Find Another Essay On The Process of Water Treatment

Case Study of Waste Water Treatment Plants

1288 words - 6 pages government standards, is critical to maintain low levels of wastes that are returned to neighboring water systems after treatment. Phase one in process of waste water treatment begins in the home, local businesses and community. Waste water from these buildings and surrounding areas travel through a pipe, or sewer which is sloped downward, and with the assistance of gravity, travels toward the waste water treatment plant. However, in larger

Treatment of drinking water and the processes used in the Illawarra region. HSC year 12 syllabus

4808 words - 19 pages multichannel and capillary are most suitable in water treatment application because they are characterised by; ow energy consumption, more compact (especially capillary fibres, and easily regenerated by backflushing. Membrane filters are easy to clean unlike sand filters where the cleaning process is complicated and takes a lot of energy. The cleaning process of membrane filters requires backwashing with water, spraying with compressed air (to remove

The Process Of Decomposition Of Mixtures Into Compounds And Elements: Grey Water And Crude Oil

1151 words - 5 pages Dairy factories generate a high amount of wastewater from cleaning the pipelines, tankers, mixing tanks, packing lines and floors. For every litre of milk produced, twice the amount of waste water would be generated. Each year big factories can generate about 5 million litres of waste water per day. I have chosen to research about the process of how the rinse water is separated into individual components to be left with safe grey water.Dissolved


778 words - 4 pages a complex issue, water resource management should be implemented to cover entire watersheds, from upstream to downstream, and must involve the active participation of all stakeholders within the watershed (Office of the Strategic Committee for Water Resource Management, 2012). Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) is an approach to decision making in the assessment process and can be used in combination for water resource management in order to

The Treatment of Phobias

1026 words - 4 pages pain and distraction free state of being to encounter her fears. J’s fears may have been functionally dependent, in that reduction of one led to a weakening of the others. The second case (T) also started with a dental surgery that was then reinforced with in adolescence with a knee surgery. The treatment for this patient was relaxation, time regression and ego-strengthening during the hypnosis process. Through alert discussions with the therapist

The Treatment of Threats

1102 words - 5 pages Being attacked by someone does not sit well with most people. This is definitely true for the Romans and the Han Chinese. They were both subject to barbarian and nomadic invasions. The treatment of these certain barbarians was not pleasant. Most were either killed, made into slaves, or joined the army of the civilization that had just conquered them. The ones who chose to attack them did not do so on an empty stomach. Therefore, the Romans and

The chemistry of water

517 words - 2 pages to the higher parts of the tree. When water evaporates off of leaves water is being pulled from the trunk into where the water has evaporated from. This pulling force exerts all the way to the roots. The water brings along important nutrients also. This process is called capillary action. Surface tension is also formed because of cohesion. Water molecules along the surface of the water are not fully surrounded by other water molecules so they

The Power of Water

1650 words - 7 pages -45 min before a cognitive test. At the end of the experiment, it was observed that children given water had improved visual attention(Popkin, D’Anci, and Rosenberg 444). Water may not only enhance a person’s thought process, but it may also enhance one’s attitude and behavior toward being healthy, as well as one’s overall health. Consumption of water helps reduces the chance of coronary heart disease. Why? because it does not raise the blood

The Need of Water

1964 words - 8 pages elected officials that could use profit from water sales to balance city budgets and repair infrastructure. Infrastructure meaning the basic, underlying framework or features of a system or organization (Dictionary). The bad news is, is that, “Because water infrastructure is too expensive to allow multiple providers,” Hauter says, “the only real competition occurs during the bidding process.” One incident involved tow Veolia-operated plants

The Properties of Water

1103 words - 4 pages Water is not as simple as people think it is. Water is formed by the bonding of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. This bond that is being referred to is termed as a polar covalent bond. Polar means having a pair of equal and opposite charges. In this case, that is exactly what is happening. The oxygen atoms are negatively charged, whereas, the hydrogen atoms are positively charged. Water is formed when one atom of oxygen

"The Color of Water"

1148 words - 5 pages The Color of Water (A Black Man's Tribute to His White Mother)The English language only has one word for love. However, there are multiple types of love, with the strongest being the love you possess for your family. This love is not a strong devotion, lust for another, or love of God, instead, it is the inborn feeling that all people hold for their family members. The degree of love is the one and only measuring point of the strength of a

Similar Essays

The Process Of Water Treatment Essay

1069 words - 5 pages colloids) to form large masses which can be settled and filtered out of water (“Water Treatment Process Control”, 2012). The addition of coagulating chemicals such aluminium sulphate is necessary in order to remove the organic particles present in the raw water and to change the colour of the water from cloudy to clear. When the raw water contains big quantities of algae and very turbid, aluminium sulphate usually doesn’t react quickly with the

Water Treatment Process Essay

1327 words - 5 pages treat a contaminated source of water supply in order to protect the health of consumers. Water treatment process is defined as a process of eliminating pollutants from untreated water to produce a biologically and chemically risk-free water, which is both potable and palatable for human consumption (SAJ Holdings Sdn Bhd., n.d.). There are six important steps in water treatment process, namely screening, aeration, coagulation and flocculation

Ultrafiltration: The Water Purification Process Essay

692 words - 3 pages INTRODUCTION Ultrafiltration is a water purification process that can be used for the removal of particulates and macromolecules from raw water to produce potable and drinking water. They have been used to either replace existing secondary (coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation) and tertiary filtration (sand filtration and chlorination) systems employed in water treatment plants. When treating water with high suspended solids, UF is often

Water In The Biochemical Process Essay

1665 words - 7 pages process. Uptake of water ruptures the testa, as well as mobilising the enzymes that hydrolysis insoluble nutrients into soluble nutrients e.g., glucose, which can be easily transported and used for respiration. This occurs because, water absorbance by the seed initiates “starch degradation” by producing Gibberellic acid, which stimulates the hydrolysis of stored protein in the aleurone layer and production of amylase to hydrolyse stored nutrients
Safári na África | Being Ian | Descargar