Why By The 1830's, Was The Continuation Of Convict Transportation To The Australian Colonies Under Increasing Scrutiny, And What Arguments And Interests Were At Stake In This Debate?

1641 words - 7 pages

By the late eighteenth century, Britain was no stranger to the process of colonisation. However from Captain Cook's first arrival at Botany Bay until the complete reprieve of the Hulks Act in 1850, successive British governments would experiment with a revolutionary style of colonisation called 'Convict Transpotation'. This would see over 115,000 convicts being transported to the two colonies of New South Wales and Van Diemans Land, in an effort to relieve a domestic surge in convict numbers following the industrial revolution (which had caused increases both in population and urbanisation). However by the 1830's this process was to receive much opposition from those who viewed transportation as too mild a punishment. Following a number a reforms to solve this problem, many took the alternate view that transportation was inhumane and similar to slavery. Transportation was placed under further scrutiny when voluntary migration to Australia began to grow with the prospect of an end to transportation and it became clear that Australia, 'must one day or another be one of the greatest colonies belonging to the British Empire' .The settlement of Australia began in earnest with the arrival of convicts and soldiers under Governor Arthur Philip at Botany Bay in January 1788, (the 26th of this month being the date now celebrated as 'Australian Day'). This settlement consisted fundamentally of the two penal colonies, which were set up in New South Wales and Van Dieman's Land (modern day Tasmania). The number of free settlers was at an absolute minimum. However, when the benefits gained by the officers became apparent, along with the gradual development of the wool growing industry, the numbers of free settlers would gradually increase as well. This gradual influx of enterprising and upstanding British citizens was to cause Philip and his successive governors difficulties in any bid to maintain Western Australia as solely a penal colony. In fact Philip, in an effort to maintain New South Wales as an exclusive, "place of exile", he had prohibited "the building of all but the smallest boats" in Sydney. However, by the turn of the century Sydney cove housed a bustling shipyard.It soon became clear that resistance was futile and that New South Wales was destined to become a thriving commercial British Colony. The early 19th century was also to see the instalment of a new governor named Lachlan MacQuarie (who was sent in the aftermath of the 1808 Rum Rebellion). In spite of his reputation as a military man, MacQuarie would play a pivotal role in nurturing the co-operation of New South Wales as a penal colony and as a buoyant trading partner for Britain.Under his governorship MacQuarie established a bank and introduced a currency. He laid out Sydney afresh and embarked on a major programme of public works. Convicts played a crucial role in this development of Sydney and of Australia as a whole, which would, thanks to convict labour, eventually become the chief...

Find Another Essay On Why by the 1830's, was the continuation of convict transportation to the Australian colonies under increasing scrutiny, and what arguments and interests were at stake in this debate?

1. What is the policy of multiculturalism and why was it introduced by the 1970's? 2. The effects that the policy of multiculturalism has had on Australian culture and society. 3. Case Study:

1046 words - 4 pages 1. What is the policy of multiculturalism and why was it introduced by the 1970's?The policy of multiculturalism was embraced by the Whitlam Labor government in 1972. The policy recognised ethnic groups across Australia could preserve their identities and cultural heritage while at the same time having an overall commitment to the nation as a whole. In 1977 a charter for multicultural Australia was drawn up. This charter recognised the three

The early 1900's, who were the scientists associated with Uniformitarianism and Catastrophism and what evidence did they use to bolster their arguments?

698 words - 3 pages of water from which rocks were borne forming most of the dry land.Now, Uniformitarianism was overshadowed by the doctrine of Catastrophism, the doctrine stated, that at certain intervals in the earth's history all living things have been destroyed by catastrophes (floods or earthquakes) and replaced by an entirely different population. During these catastrophes, the features of the earth's surface, such as mountains and valleys, were formed

What happened at the Constitutional Convention of 1787, and why was it significant

1225 words - 5 pages Jersey Plan was proposed by delegate William Patterson. This system consisted of a unicameral Congress in which each state had an equal number of votes. This plan was favored by small states since it treated them as equals. "The delegates from the large sates were against this kind of equality and argued instead for the equality of men rather than states. It is obvious that this position suited their interests: if all mes were represented equally in

What happened at the Constitutional Convention of 1787, and why was it significant?

1247 words - 5 pages The Constitution of the United States is arguably the finest historical document in the history of the world. The freedoms and rights that are given to us by the Constitution are what make America the greatest country in the world to live in. However, this document was not constructed over night. The United States' system of Government has gone through numerous changes to become the great system that it is today.In the years following the

Federalist Republican debate; which policies were better for the US in that time period and why?

1282 words - 6 pages population identical to the House of Representatives in modern day. The upper house states would be represented two members equally such as the Senate is currently. By giving power to the people and the creation of checks and balances, the Constitution of 1787 resolved the question of who was to be sovereign and the where the powers lie. Each state had to ratify this Constitution before it could be implemented, causing debate. The question whether

"The War in Iraq: What do you Believe!?" This paper was written about a year into the war, and at the time many people were arguing about the oil and Saddam issue

1064 words - 4 pages On March 20, 2003, the United States, after a large build up of troops, attacked Iraq. The United States, after a decade of diplomatic disete and lies by Iraq, had finally ran out of nonmilitary methods of getting Iraq to obey UN decries including admission of and destruction of all weapons of mass destruction. I feel that the United States was justified in taking the actions they did due to many reasons that will be explained throughout this

"British policy toward its American Colonies between 1763 and 1775 were justifiable." Assess the validity of this statement.

1229 words - 5 pages even more outrageously, The Intolerable Acts of 1775 went so far as to quarter soldiers in the homes of colonists, close ports, undermine the colonial justice system and instate royal governors.The first of the one-sided taxes imposed on the colonies was The Sugar Act headed by Prime Minister George Grenville; although a slight tax, the colonists were angered by the premise of British government enacting taxes upon them (Benson 1501-02). The Sugar

The Australian Government intends to sell Medibank Private. Describe why Medibank Private was originally established and critically discuss the Government's reasons for privatising this organisation

991 words - 4 pages Private was, in part, 'influenced by a wish to defuse union attacks over the Medibank changes'. Because the change of the 2.5 Medibank levy would offset gain to private enterprise the unions were angry about this Medibank change (Sax, 1984, p.136).The government has argued that 'there is no policy reason for the government to continue to own a health fund' (Abbot & Minchin, 2006). The government has also suggested that a privatised Medibank

To what extent do personal attributes affect Ways of Knowing and why, if at all, does answering this question matter in the first place?

785 words - 3 pages contradictive and are more widely understood then verbal language but still their interpretations vary alongside with cultural and historic background.After being bitten by a dog, at the age of 2, my friend has always been scared of dogs. This serves as an emotional boundary to what ever she perceives. She finds it very hard to communicate with people who keep dogs as pets. Roughly 5 months ago my parents bought me a dog! Now my friend is trying to stay

To what extent do personal attributes affect Ways of Knowing and why, if at all, does answering this question matter in the first place?

1134 words - 5 pages Einstein's belief in God made him reason differently about the new physics (quantum physics). He would not accept this new way of looking at things, and simply denied the probabilistic world view by saying "God is not malicious". Even though there are flaws in the realm of knowledge, like how can everyone with a different opinion know the same thing and if that how do we know what we know is the right way of knowing. Someone's personal

Stolen Generation How and why were Aborogonal children removed from their families? what did the government think of this?

4984 words - 20 pages neither". Concerning the "problem" of the half-caste in the first forty years of this century panicky statistical calculations were frequently made, purporting to show that while the full-blood Aborigine was, according to one point of view, slowly dying out and, according to another, maintaining its numbers as a"slow breeder", the numbers of half-castes, negligible at century's beginning, were increasing at an alarming rate. These statistical

Similar Essays

Under The Constitution Of England, The Taxes Placed On The This Describes American Colonies In The 1760's Were Legal, Why Did Taxes Contributed To The Coming Of The American Revolution

1085 words - 4 pages . The following act past in 1765 was the Stamp Act. It was a tax on legal documents. This hit the colonies hard. It affected nearly all colonists but especially the influential upper class who used legal documents all the time.The reaction of the colonists was violent. This rapid taxation was too much for the colonists. They had long been accustomed to their own legislatures and were angry at this disrespect for them by parliament. "No taxation

To What Extent Were The Ideals Of Young Australian Soldiers Shattered By The Reality Of Their Experiences At Gallipoli? Was Anything Salvaged From Such A Military Disaster?'

933 words - 4 pages unnecessary loss of life. The Anzac’s sense of adventure and their quest to see beyond the shores of Australia were quickly questioned by the realisation that their present experiences would cause them to confront on a daily basis, the deprivation of food and water, the death of their mates and the horrors of the reality of war. In this setting, what was to be tested was their ability to adapt, to persevere and to overcome. While their ideals of the

What Is The Role Of The Australian Legal System In Establishing Rights, Responsibilities And Values? Discuss This In Relevence To The Euthanasia Debate

1619 words - 6 pages advocates of change. Out of forty-four proposed amendments to the written word of the Constitution, only eight have been passed. The most notable of these occurred in 1967 when s.127 of the Constitution was repealed and Aboriginal people were granted the right to have their votes counted for the very first time. This occurrence is an example of a shifting social acceptance of the native peoples of this land (90.77% of voters were in favour of

Henry Viii The "Old King Cole" Or Blue Beard Approach Is Often Under Scrutiny. This Essay Affirms The Old King Cole Approach, In Which Henry Acted Out Of The Interests Of The Country

1193 words - 5 pages ; she was quickly tried and sentenced to death. Though a great loss, Henry enacted this for the good of the nation: one death is glanced over in the event of a influx of power. It wasn't until his next wife, Jane Seymour, that he would be granted with a male heir. The awe inspiring King was not confident with having one son, but Jane died prior to giving birth to another male. In a society where, what we'd consider premature deaths were commonplace
Commercial Grade 1HP Electric Meat Grinder 1100W Stainless Steel Heavy Duty #22 | Fackeln im Sturm | Sensei Oshiete Ageru